Learn more about Yellow Fever Page ContentWhat is Yellow Fever?Yellow fever is a viral illness, carried by some species of mosquitoes in Central and South America, and in tropical regions of Africa. A mild attack may have symptoms similar to those of the flu. More severe symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, bleeding, abdominal pains and yellowing of the skin as a result of liver damage.Where Is It?Yellow Fever is a viral disease endemic in the Sub-Saharan Africa and South America.Countries with Risk Yellow Fever TransmissionAfricaCentral and South AmericaAngolaBeninBurkina FasoBurundiCameroonCentral African RepublicChad2Congo, Rep. of theCôte d’IvoireDem. Rep. of the Congo2Equatorial GuineaEthiopia2GabonThe GambiaGhanaGuineaGuinea-BissauKenya2LiberiaMali2Mauritania2Niger2NigeriaSenegalSierra LeoneSudan2South SudanTogoUgandaArgentina2Bolivia2Brazil2Colombia2Ecuador2French GuianaGuyanaPanama2ParaguayPeru2SurinameTrinidad and Tobago2Venezuela21Countries/areas where “a risk of yellow fever transmission is present,” as defined by the World Health Organization, are countries or areas where “yellow fever has been reported currently or in the past, plus vectors and animal reservoirs currently exist.”2These countries are not holoendemic (i.e., only a portion of the country has risk of yellow fever transmission). Please see above map for details.Countries that require proof of yellow fever vaccination for all arriving travelers1AngolaBurundiCameroonCentral African RepublicCongo, Republic of theCôte d’IvoireDemocratic Republic of CongoFrench GuianaGabonGhanaGuinea-BissauLiberiaMaliNigerSierra LeoneTogoUganda1 Country requirements for yellow fever vaccination are subject to change at any time; therefore, CDC encourages travelers to check with the destination country’s embassy or consulate before departure.Prevention TipsYour best defense is to avoid mosquito bites altogether, but travelers can reduce their risk of acquiring yellow fever by:Taking precautions against exposure to mosquitoes when traveling in areas with yellow fever transmission.Remaining in well-screened or air conditioned areas when possible.Wearing clothing that adequately covers the arms and legs.Applying DEET-containing insect repellent to both skin and clothing.Yellow fever vaccination may be required for entry if you are traveling to, or stopping in a country where the disease exists.Consult with your local Kelsey-Seybold Travel Clinic to determine if your travel itinerary will require you to be immunized for yellow fever.Available ImmunizationsImmunization is required in certain countries. The vaccine must be administered at an approved yellow fever vaccination center. Contact your local state health department for the nearest vaccination center. Vaccines should receive complete International Certificate of vaccination, signed and validated with the center's stamp where the vaccine was given.This certificate is valid 10 days after vaccination and for a subsequent period of 10 years. This certificate should be carried with your passport at all times.